Category Archives: Diseases

Synapse Disruption & Alzheimer Disease

Brain dysfunction in Alzheimer Disease (AD) has been associated with abnormal production of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is generated by proteolytic processing from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP is a member of the APP gene family which codes … Continue reading

Posted in Alzheimer disease, brain, signal transduction | Leave a comment

Amyloid β-protein and Synaptophysin

Amyloid β-peptide is normally produced in the brain from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer disease says that abnormal accumulation in the brain of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) causes disruption of synaptic neurotransmission and, eventually, the death of neurons … Continue reading

Posted in Alzheimer disease, synaptic vesicles | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Regulation of Monoamine Oxidase in Parkinson Disease

In an earlier blog post I linked to an article about the potential role of dopamine metabolism and oxidative stress in Parkinson disease. Now the research group of Jian Feng reports that the protein Parkin regulates the expression of monoamine … Continue reading

Posted in L-DOPA, Parkinson disease, proteolysis | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Functions of dopamine in the basal ganglia

Parkinson disease can be caused by loss of dapaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. There are two major populations of neurons in the striatum that respond to dopamine. Their roles in movement disorders are the subjuct of ongoing research. I … Continue reading

Posted in dyskinesia, Huntington disease, L-DOPA, Parkinson disease | Tagged , , , | 1 Comment

Inability to experience pain

Voltage-gated sodium channels produce action potentials that carry pain sensation into the central nervous system. Here is an article about a family with members who exhibit a congenital inability to experience pain: A stop codon mutation in SCN9A causes lack … Continue reading

Posted in congenital insensitivity to pain, Diseases, electrophysiology, NaV1.7, pharmacology, ranolazine | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Tissue factor

tissue factor Tissue factor, also known as blood coagulation factor III, is a transmembrane protein  that is important for blood clotting (1). Tissue factor can bind coagulation factor VII, resulting in the activation of its protease activity and leading to fibrin clot … Continue reading

Posted in hemostasis, hypercoagulation, oral contraceptives, pharmacology, protease-activated receptor, proteolysis | Tagged , , , | 1 Comment

How many types of photoreceptor cells do we have?

Before this century, the answer was 2: rods and cones (see this textbook). However, there was good evidence that rods and cones could not account for all responses to light in mammals (1). In 2000, it was suggested that melanopsin-expressing retinal … Continue reading

Posted in circadian rhythm, electrophysiology, Leber hereditary opic neuropathy, retinal ganglion cells, sensory physiology, vision | Tagged , , | Leave a comment